Diabetic patients have persistently elevated blood sugar levels. The inability to create or properly use insulin, a hormone that aids in the conversion of food into energy, is the root reason.
High blood glucose levels result from the body’s inability to metabolize glucose in people with diabetes. Diabetes is a serious condition that can cause long-term health problems and can even be life-threatening if it is not properly managed.
Types of Diabetes
There are two types of diabetes such as type-1 and type-2 diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes:
With type 1 diabetes, the pancreatic cells responsible for insulin production are attacked and destroyed by the immune system. High levels of glucose in the blood are the result of the body’s inability to metabolize glucose adequately when insulin production is inadequate. There is currently no cure for type 1 diabetes, which is often diagnosed in youth and young people.
Type 2 diabetes:
When cells in the body are unable to respond normally to insulin, the result is type 2 diabetes, a long-term illness. Insulin resistance refers to the inability of the body’s cells to respond to insulin. High levels of glucose in the blood result from the pancreas’ inability to create enough insulin to meet the body’s needs. Type 2 diabetes is typically diagnosed in adults and is often associated with being overweight or obese.
Causes of Diabetes
Although no one knows what causes diabetes, there are a number of things that might put a person at a higher risk of having the disease. The presence of these risk factors increases the likelihood that a person may develop diabetes.
Hypertension, obesity, family history of diabetes, and unhealthy lifestyle are the contributing factors to diabetes.
Signs & Symptoms of Diabetes
The most common symptoms of diabetes include increased hunger and thirst, weight loss, frequent urination, slow-healing wounds, fatigue, and blurry vision. If you have any of these symptoms, it is important to consult your doctor as soon as possible.
Medications may sometimes damage beta cells or interfere with insulin’s normal function. Some of them are:
- anti-seizure drugs
- HIV- Medication
- antipsychotic drugs
- Fasting Blood Glucose Test: This test is used to measure the amount of glucose in your blood after you have fasted for at least 8 hours.
- Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: This test measures your body’s response to sugar (glucose) after you have fasted for 8 hours and then drank a sugary drink.
- Random Blood Sugar Test: Glucose levels in the blood are evaluated using this test.
- HbA1C Test: The amount of glucose bound to your hemoglobin (red blood cells) will be determined by this test. This test measures the average level of blood sugar over the past 2 to 3 months.
- Ketone Test: This test measures the amount of ketones (byproducts of fat breakdown) in your blood.
Treatment & Prevention of Diabetes
Treatment for diabetes focuses on maintaining normal blood sugar levels. Medication, healthy lifestyle modifications (such as a balanced diet and frequent exercise), and close monitoring of blood sugar levels make up the standard treatment plan for type 2 diabetes.
Stopping diabetes in its tracks is crucial. The chance of acquiring diabetes may be lowered by adhering to a healthy lifestyle, including eating well, keeping a healthy weight, and exercising regularly. Also, make sure your blood sugar levels are consistently within a safe range by monitoring them often.
Medications like insulin treatment are often used in conjunction with dietary and lifestyle adjustments to treat type 1 diabetes.
Other medications that are used to treat type 1 diabetes include:
- Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
- Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists
- Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors
- SGLT2 inhibitors
- Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors
- Amylin analogs
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FAQs about Diabetes:
Q: How can we diagnose diabetes?
A: Diabetes is diagnosed by measuring the amount of blood glucose. The most commonly used tests used to diagnose diabetes are the oral glucose tolerance test and the fasting plasma glucose test.
Q: What are the best treatment strategies for diabetes?
A: Treatment for diabetes includes lifestyle changes such as regular physical activity, stress reduction, and healthy eating, along with medications such as insulin.
Q: What is the prognosis for diabetes?
A: The prognosis for diabetes depends on how well the patient can control their blood sugar levels. With proper management, most people with diabetes can lead healthy and active life.