Dr. Saqib Khan
Asthma Its Types and Medications

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory illness that involves airway constriction, mucus production, and airway remodeling. It is among the most frequent chronic disorders in both adults and children all over the globe. This article will go through the various types of asthma, its symptoms, causes, and drugs used to treat them.

Types of Asthma:

Asthma is a complex condition that is classified according to its severity and the type of symptoms that it causes. The four main types of asthma are:

1. Intermittent asthma – This type of asthma is characterized by infrequent and mild symptoms. Symptoms of intermittent asthma may include chest tightness, shortness of breath, and coughing. These symptoms may come and go quickly or may last for several hours. People with intermittent asthma may only experience symptoms at certain times, such as when exposed to a certain allergen or when exercising.

2. Persistent asthma – This type of asthma is characterized by symptoms that are more frequent and severe. People with persistent asthma may experience symptoms on a daily basis or may have symptoms that are triggered by allergens or exercise. Symptoms of persistent asthma may include shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing.

3. Severe persistent asthma – This type of asthma is the most serious and is characterized by frequent and severe symptoms. People with severe persistent asthma may experience difficulty breathing, wheezing, and chest tightness on a daily basis. These symptoms may be triggered by allergens or exercise or may be constant.

4. Exercise-induced asthma – This type of asthma is generally triggered via exercise or physical activity. Symptoms of exercise-induced asthma include coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.

Causes of Asthma:

Although the actual etiology of asthma is unclear, various variables are likely to be contributing to its development. The following are the main causes of asthma:

1. Allergens – Allergens such as pet dander, dust mites, and pollen can trigger asthma symptoms.

2. Air pollutants – Air pollutants such as smoke, vehicle exhaust, and industrial fumes can trigger asthma symptoms.

3. Respiratory infections – Respiratory infections such as colds and flu can trigger asthma symptoms.

4. Stress – Stress can trigger asthma symptoms in some people.

5. Genetics – Genetics may play a role in the development of asthma.

Symptoms of Asthma:

Asthma symptoms differ from individual to individual, however, the most prevalent ones are as follows:

1. Coughing – Asthma can cause a dry, hacking cough that is worse at night and in the morning.

2. Wheezing – Asthma can cause a whistling sound when you breathe.

3. Chest tightness – Asthma may result in chest tightness.

4. Shortness of breath – Asthma can cause difficulty breathing.

5. Fatigue – Asthma can cause fatigue due to difficulty breathing.

Asthma Treatment/Medications:

Asthma is a chronic disease that needs continual therapy. Treatment aims to lessen symptoms, decrease the incidence of exacerbations, and enhance the quality of life. Treatment typically includes medications and lifestyle changes.

Medications used to treat asthma include:

1. Quick-relief medications – These drugs, which include short-acting β-agonists like albuterol and anticholinergics like ipratropium, are used to alleviate symptoms immediately.

2. Long-term control medications – These medications are used to reduce inflammation and prevent asthma symptoms. They include long-acting β-agonists and inhaled corticosteroids.

  • Inhaled corticosteroids: these include budesonide, fluticasone, mometasone, ciclesonide and beclomethasone.
  • Leukotriene modifiers or Antileukotrienes: these include zileuton, montelukast sodium, and zafirlukast.
  • Long-acting inhaled β2-agonists: these include vilanterol, salmeterol, and formoterol.

3. Systemic corticosteroids – These medications are taken orally or intravenously and are used to reduce inflammation and prevent asthma exacerbations. Such as:

  • Beclomethasone
  • Prednisolone
  • Dexamethasone
  • Methylprednisolone
  • Prednisone
  • Betamethasone

4. Leukotriene modifiers – These medications are taken orally and are used to reduce inflammation and prevent asthma exacerbations.

  • Zafirlukast
  • Montelukast Na
  • Zileuton

In addition to medications, lifestyle modifications and other treatments may be used to help manage asthma symptoms. These can include:

  • Avoiding triggers: Identifying and avoiding triggers such as cigarette smoke, cold air, pet dander, and air pollution can help reduce asthma flare-ups.
  • Monitoring symptoms: Keeping track of symptoms and noting any changes can help identify patterns and allow for more targeted treatment.
  • Pulmonary rehabilitation: This type of program includes exercise and breathing exercises to help improve breathing and endurance.
  • Allergy immunotherapy: Allergy shots or tablets may be used to desensitize the body to allergens that can trigger asthma symptoms.
  • Surgery: Surgery may be required in certain circumstances to eliminate airway obstructions or other structural issues.
  • Alternative therapies: Some people may choose to use additional methods to manage their asthma, such as yoga, acupuncture, or meditation.

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Video Lecture:


Asthma is a long-term inflammatory illness that involves mucus production, airway remodeling, and airway constriction. It is among the most frequent chronic disorders in both adults and children all over the globe. This article discussed the types, causes, symptoms, and medications used to treat asthma. Treatment typically includes medications and lifestyle changes. It is important to collaborate with your healthcare practitioner to design an asthma management strategy that is appropriate for you.


Q: What are the symptoms of asthma?

A: Asthma symptoms include coughing, wheezing, trouble breathing, shortness of breath, and tightness of the chest.

Q: How is asthma treated?

A: Treatment for asthma typically includes a combination of medications, lifestyle changes, and environmental control. Medications may include inhaled steroids, bronchodilators, and other medications.

Q: What can I do to prevent asthma attacks?

A: To prevent asthma attacks, it is important to identify and avoid triggers, control allergies, get regular check-ups, and take medications as prescribed. Additionally, it is important to be aware of air quality and take steps to improve air quality in the home.

By Dr. Saqib Khan

I am a medical professional and research scholar having vast experience in Computer-aided drug discovery and organic Synthetic Chemistry. I also have a passion for academic and medical writing.

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